The evolution of greater intervention and control in Hong Kong by Chinese governmental authorities has begun to sink into higher education. Some university scholars who have been outspoken critics of China's security law are leaving for academic posts elsewhere. Those who are staying are learning to negotiate the ever-changing landscape of Chinese governmental policy. The concern is that academic and personal freedom are being compromised either directly by threat or reality of Chinese official intervention or by the self-imposed regulation that academics observe in order to stay out of trouble.
Wednesday, July 28, 2021
The surprisingly positive recent report of college business officers (CBOs) raises a thorny issue - is inertia creeping back into higher education's consciousness? During the pandemic and the incredible changes it forced on colleges and universities, many said that a transformation of higher education was underway or on the horizon. Thirty-one percent of CBOs now say that "Return to normal" is what they expect for their institutions in the coming year.
The "return to normal" perspective may be the result of good work within institutions, while some credit the Biden administration for helpful intervention. A return to normal may also reflect the optimism that many institution leaders will want to model as students return to campuses across the U.S.A. By contrast to "return to normal," 39% of CBOs replied that the pandemic would usher in a period of transformational change that would allow them to prepare for a more sustainable future. I'm with the 39% and hope that this proportion increases as the reality of the 2021-22 year unfolds.
Somewhat countering the optimism of business officers, trends hitting higher education include declining enrollment, increases in on-line learning, and employers turning to alternative credentialing. Oh, and then there's the impact on individuals who have had COVID and continue to fight the long-term impact of the virus.
The report of business officers' views included other evidence that supports transformational change. Ninety-six percent of CBOs agreed or strongly agreed that the pandemic forced their institutions to think out of the box and 78% said that positive, long-lasting changes have been implemented. With 93% indicating that their institutions will keep some of the pandemic accommodations, and 68% saying that their their institutions have the right mind-set and 62% indicating they have the right tools and processes, it appears that higher education business leaders see the post-pandemic era as holding great potential for improvements in higher education.
One of the keys to success will be the ability of institutions to strategize in the face of uncertainty. Welcoming uncertainty and using it to devise new futures has been demonstrated by successful organizations outside higher education. Blurring the boundaries of secondary and higher education is one proposal that defines a very different future for some institutions. Incorporating intergenerational deliberation about critical global issues that must be addressed is another. Tensions over what is taught - whether it is critically informed perspectives that advocate greater diversity, equity, and inclusion or encouraging students to celebrate advances of the modern era - will be one of the more interesting issues to negotiate.
Tuesday, July 27, 2021
It couldn't have come at a better time, with fewer international students having chosen the U.S.A, coupled with continued decline of U.S.A. prominence as a destination of choice for international students. After four years of disastrous targeting by the Trump administration, international education may be poised for a come back. The U.S. Department of Education and Department of State issued a joint statement that may usher in a period of federal coordination of international initiatives, potentially returning U.S. higher education to magnet status for talented young people from all over the world.
The joint statement is also supported by the Department of Commerce and Homeland Security, a signal that there will be a purposeful and coordinated approach rather than hit and miss efforts coming only from the higher education sector. Secretary of State Blinkin said that the statement, "underscores our commitment to working across our government and with partners in higher education, the private sector, civil society and other sectors to keep promoting international education in the United States,..." potentially resulting in international student numbers exceeding pre-pandemic levels in American institutions. Early evidence reported in Reuters indicated that visa processing was not keeping pace with international student applications, an issue that requires quick resolution.
Lobbying to modify the proposed veterans' education law, the THRIVE act, is underway to prevent the imposition of restrictions on international student recruiting. The issue is incentive-based recruitment, a controversial practice that is used by many U.S.A. institutions to recruit international students. The THRIVE act would prevent paid recruiting to existing or proposed programs in which veterans might participate.
One of the tensions of hosting international students is what they study. The latest report on graduate international enrollment highlights their preference for STEM subjects. Some fear the dominance of internationals in these programs, resulting in the export of critical scientific knowledge. However, the report acknowledges that many U.S. graduate programs would be damaged, or even have to close, if international graduate students weren't enrolled in them.
Equity and inclusion has been a barrier for many in the past. To the credit of those who drafted the statement, it includes a commitment to "encourage U.S. students, researchers, scholars and educators who reflect the diversity of the U.S. population to pursue overseas study, internships, research and other international experiences." The Institute for International Education offered grants to 40 institutions to cover the cost of passport processing to resolve this one financial barrier. Some believe that in-person exchanges can also be supplemented by virtual exchanges, which expanded during the pandemic due to restricted travel around the world.
The United Kingdom is seeing a decline in the enrollment of international students, which is being attributed to both Brexit and the pandemic. UK institutions have drawn a portion of their students from other EU countries and students from the EU now pay higher tuition rates at UK institutions. The decline in international students has resulted in more homogenous student bodies in regard to both passport country as well as socio-economic background.
Monday, July 26, 2021
I haven't read it yet but Joshua Kim of Inside Higher Education offers considerable praise for American Higher Education in the 21st Century, by editors Bastedo, Altbach, and Gumport. Kim expressed struggling with the depth reflected in the 17 chapters but found the audio book more manageable. A core assumption of the book is that higher education in the U.S.A. is an "ecosystem in transition," one that is moving very quickly and, yet, not fast enough. The authors of the various chapters were characterized as progressive in their views, maintaining the belief in the transformational contribution of education, and from diverse backgrounds that moved beyond known names.
Saturday, July 24, 2021
- Enrollment decline and shifts to elite and high visibility institutions
- Budget reductions and refocus
- Number of full-time faculty declining with fewer granted tenure
- Increasing role for on-line and hybrid learning
- Reprioritization of universities to address historic unequal access and the need to prepare for the workplace
- Increasing view of college/university degrees as a commodity to acquire
- The value of higher education is increasingly questioned by students and those who are politically conservative
- Nurture a “Generation Resilient” view that faces the reality of today’s world while restoring hope for what lies ahead
- Support on-time graduation and/or continuing enrollment goals for students
- Anticipate new and more intense student needs
- Focus on wholistic wellbeing that helps students thrive now and in preparing for the future
- Students from diverse backgrounds (including first-generation) warrant greater attention
- Enliven students’ openness to diversity, equity, and inclusion and move further toward radical empathy
- Acknowledge the shortcomings of higher education in conveying the full history of the U.S. and other countries around the world, including the origins and perpetuation of wealth inequality
- Endorse broad international frameworks (e.g. UN Sustainable Development goals) that reinforce education’s role
- Enhance the commitment to open exchange of ideas and foster respectful dialogue across political factions
- Validate experiences of varying types (e.g. on and off campus, work, research) as part of learning
- Resist the silos that have become so endemic and resistant to shared vision and work
- Students are increasingly experiencing financial, mental health, and courseload pressures
- Many students are unaware of, or do not utilize, student affairs offices and services, turning to peers and faculty as an alternative
- Marginalized students have less trust for colleges/universities, their purposes/programs, and faculty/staff
- The “hidden curriculum” (i.e. extracurriculum/cocurriculum) is poorly understood, especially among first-generation and other marginalized students
- Embracing a post-pandemic world requires reexamining assumptions, greater flexibility, and constant adaptability
- Restoring critical thinking and reasoning as a central construct of academic life, positioning students for more effective career and civic engagement
Monday, July 12, 2021
The largest portion of all college and university budgets is personnel. Increasing college access in the U.S.A., accompanied by expansion of faculty and staff numbers, came with the entry of "baby-boomers" into higher education in the 1960s. This expanding enrollment generated enough revenue to cover the increased costs but when enrollment flattened and public support for funding declined, the costs began to outpace the ability of institutions to cover these costs.
The increased complexity and commodification of higher education requires a response - one that involves all those who work in higher education, students, families, employers, and communities. The first "Higher Ed Labor Summit" brought labor representatives together representing 75 labor organizations representing approximately 300,000 members to draft a platform that envisions "institutions of higher education that prioritize people and the common good over profit and prestige." The focus of the platform advocates a federal effort to address accessibility, permit more union participation, and guarantee shared governance. The AAUP issued a report that reinforced the threat to faculty related to participation in governance. Views of faculty participation vary over time but the swing away from broader types of involvement by faculty, most notably in areas such as facilities and budget, have declined.
Turning the problem of accessibility and sustainable financing over to those representing the largest portion of the budget seems naive, although the principle of collective thinking and organization participation is commonly seen as the pathway to improvement. The question is how do you broadly inform all those who work in higher education about the intricacies and challenges of funding and then engage them in true creative thinking about alternatives?
There are many floating pieces to the puzzle of higher education planning and finance. Some of them are:
- Breaking down silos.
- Addressing inequality throughout K-12 and higher education.
- Attending to employer needs/demands.
- Expanding opportunities for faculty to be involved in broader administrative responsibilities through internships while they are graduate students or through serial and periodic administrative assignments during their careers.
Friday, July 9, 2021
As a lifetime academic who was a first-generation student in the late 1960s era in U.S.A. higher education, I didn't have a clue about how faculty researched, wrote, and got published. In retrospect, even as I drove more deeply into an academic career, obtaining masters and Ph.D. degrees, I had no one to help me understand how to develop a research agenda, build support through dutiful graduate students who would advance my work, and publish in ways that brought citations and therefore reputational advantage to my ideas. Nevertheless, over 40+ years, I made a modest contribution to the literature of student affairs, leadership studies, and higher education internationalization but could I have had more impact?
My own background reflects naiveté that may be similar, but different in other ways, to graduate students who strive to get published today. Australia has now recognized the predatory practices of publishers who solicit unknowing young scholars to publish in their journals, some for a fee. Australia's strategy is to limit recognition of published works based on quality thresholds that are determined by discipline.
To be sure, a solution to the profusion of publication opportunities that result in research and ideas being lost in obscurity is required. I'm less sure if narrowing the window of opportunity is the best solution, especially if young academics are left to fend for themselves in a competitive environment that has often been characterized as "publish or parish." Higher education needs new and different models in order not to perpetuate the cognitive privilege of seasoned and coached academics whose pathway to publishing is both more clear and "greased" with networks and intellectual nepotism.
Tuesday, July 6, 2021
Coming from potentially all over the world, international students who will study in the U.S. this year face a variety of expectations about COVID-19 vaccination. Some institutions are attempting to simplify the question of which vaccine and where it is administered by simply requiring international students to verify a vaccination, regardless of which one it is. At least this simplified approach will help international students who are trying to find affordable flights as well as adhere to quarantine requirements as they arrive in the U.S. It's not going to be easy but smart institutions will err on the side of flexibility.